Pig farming in Nigeria can be a great source of employment and income.
Steps to start pig farming in Nigeria
You can start raising pigs both domestically and commercially. For commercial pig farming in Nigeria, follow the steps listed below.
Select a suitable land
Before starting a pig farming business in Nigeria, you must acquire suitable land. The size or area of the land will depend on the scale of your pig farming business. The more pigs you want to raise, the more land will be required. Divide the land into several plots. This will help you to raise different aged pigs separately. While selecting land for pig farming business in Nigeria, keep in mind some necessary facilities:
- Sufficient supply of fresh and clean water
- Good transportation systems
- Far from the residential area
- Food are available near the farmland
- Availability of all types of veterinary service
After selecting a suitable farm land, it is very important to select proper pig breeds/piglets. Because, profitability from pig farming in Nigeria mostly depends on selecting proper piglets. You can choose both local and hybrid piglets. For commercial purposes, crossbreeding of exotic and local breeds are very suitable. This type of crossbred pigs consume more feed, grow faster and become healthier than others available.
It might be difficult for you to select the right breed for your pig farming business. So, while purchasing pigs look out for the following signs:
- The selected pig must have a pair of bright eyes
- Have a glossy coat
- Have good appeal to food
- Free from lameness or any other unnatural signs
- During the purchase of piglets, ask the producer about their health information, production history and other records.
- Ask the producer if the pig has been vaccinated and dewormed or not. If not, tell him to do it urgently.
Housing is very important for commercial pig farming in Nigeria. A good house can keep them healthy, productive and free from adverse climate and all types of predators. Housing also helps to keep them warm in cold temperatures and moderate temperature during excessive heat. Pigs are very sensitive to heat and they may become sick and die due to excessive or cold temperatures. Control and moderate temperature can help to maximize the growth and production of the pig farming business. Pigs can be raised in both indoors and individual stalls, pens or barns. For an indoor pig farming system, make proper and sufficient ventilation systems in the house. Ensure sufficient flow of fresh air and light inside the house. Make proper drainage inside the house to keep the house dry. Make housing with good sanitation facilities so that you can easily clean the house.
You can feed your pigs almost everything including roughage, kitchen, garbage, agricultural waste, stalks from beverage companies etc. For commercial production you have to feed your pigs at least twice a day. Generally, pigs eat both grains and meat. You can also feed your pigs with cooked table scraps, rice and vegetables. Among all the food elements, corn is the most common food for pigs. Soybeans or cooked meat can be a great source of protein for the pigs. Pigs will grow faster, if given necessary nutritional elements, vitamins and other supplements. Piglets require more protein than mature pigs. You can buy ready-made pig food from the market or make your own mixture prepared at home. Along with sufficient amounts of clean and fresh water because pigs require a huge amount of water daily. So make a great source of clean and fresh water available in the farm area.
Breeding process of pigs is easy and simple. Generally, the gestation period of pigs is not more than 115 days. Sow gives birth to piglets twice a year and produces more than 10 kids each time. After delivery, the kids will be fed with breast milk for their first nine weeks of age. After completing the grower stage of piglets, the sow becomes suitable for mating again.
There is a good market for pork. You can sell your products in your local market or international market. China is the world’s largest pork consumers. Pork is tasty, nutritious and has a great global popularity. Pig farming in Nigeria has great business opportunities for unemployed educated people, women and for the people who want to raise pigs commercially. If you are a beginner in this business, try to learn more about pig farming, read a lot of books, visit pig farms as much as possible and finally do it.