Engr. Nwaoma Olujie is Lagos State Coordinator, for the Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON). During the OTL Africa Downstream 2018 Conference she delivered a paper on the market outlook for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) consumption in Nigeria, highlighting the place of SON and the importance of standards. Enjoy it:
The topic of discourse is not only timely but very apt considering the huge gas reserve in the country with the tremendous potentials. Global LPG production reached over 292 million metric tons/year in 2015 while global LPG consumption to over 284 million metric tons/year. 44% of global consumption is in the domestic sector.
Nigeria is a leading country with tremendous natural gas reserves, and from a latest publication, the current estimate of Nigeria gas reserves is over 120 trillion cubic feet with 50/50 distribution ratio between Associated gas (AG) and Non Associated gas (NAG). Only a small fraction of this quantity is currently being utilized.
In 2010, the largest exporter of LPG In Sub Saharan Africa was Nigeria. With huge gas reserves of LPG in the country coupled with population, there are a lot of opportunities for investors in the subsector.
Gas Processing Plants in Nigeria:
Operational Gas Processing Plants of different capacities in Nigeria include
Ovade-Ogharefe – 130 mmscfd (millions standard cubic feet per day)
Gbaran-Ubie- 1000 mmscfd
Obigbo- 60 mmscfd
Okoloma- 240 mmscfd
Soku- 1100 mmscfd
Uquo- 200 mmscfd
Ughelli-East- 90 mmscfd
Utorogu- 360 mmscfd
Escravos EGP- 630 mmscfd
BONGA FPSO-105 mmscfd
Bonny -450 mmscfd
Oben – 300 mmscfd
Obiafu-Obikom – 1000 mmscfd
Obite- 370 mmscfd
Odidi- 40 mmscfd
Ogbele- 100 mmscfd
Oredo- 65 mmscfd
Natural gas utilization projects will diversify revenue base, reduce wastage of valuable resources as well as environmental degradation due to flaring.
Awareness has led to conversion of fuel oils to gas by local industries.
Application of LPG
LPG is used as gas but sold as liquid
Produced from both crude oil refining and natural gas processing.
Increasing household use of LPG is one of several pathways to meet the goal of universal access to clean cooking and heating solutions by 2030 as stated in the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative.
LPG is used in Industrial, Domestic, Commercial, Agricultural, Horticultural, Hospitality, Transportation, Construction and Manufacturing heat applications.
It could be a propellant, refrigerant, vehicle fuel and petrochemical, feedstock and its energy potentials are power/electricity.
At homes it serves for cooking, heating, BBQ; Business & Industry- boilers, forklifts, furnaces, Ovens; Agriculture- Crop drying, greenhouses, flame weeding. For Transportation- Autogas, buses, taxis,
commercial vehicles, trucks; Hospitality Industry- hotels, restaurants; Electricity – gas turbines, generators; Camping- Caravan parks, camping; Leisure- boats, recreational vehicles, among others.
Objectives of SON for LPG
To Ensure Safety In The Lpg Industry
– By ensuring the elaboration of standards for LPG, CNG and LNG, LPG vessels- cylinders, storage tanks and LPG vehicles in collaboration with relevant stakeholders.
– By ensuring that imported cylinders and those fabricated in Nigeria meet the requirements of standards.
– By ensuring that all LPG equipment and accessories (valves, regulators, hoses, skid stations, etc ) meet the requirements of standards
– By ensuring that newly fabricated LPG vessels are certified before use.
– By ensuring that all existing LPG vessels used in the country are certified.
Some of the standards elaborated by SON in collaboration with relevant stakeholders include but not limited to the following;
Standard for Compressed Natural Gas for Motor Vehicle NIS 932 :2017
This Standard specifies the quality requirements, sampling and test methods for compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for use as fuel in motor vehicles.
Standard for Liquefied Natural Gas – Quality and Composition Specifications NIS1020:2018
The standard is for quality control and composition specifications of LNG for residential, commercial and industrial sectors purposes covering heating, cooking, generating electricity and fuel for heavy-duty and other vehicles.
Standard for liquefied Petroleum Gas NIS 555: 2017
The standard is to be used to check the quality of liquefied petroleum gas manufactured and/or marketed in Nigeria. This standard specifies requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas mixture, commercial propane and commercial butane. It is applicable for use as domestic, commercial and industrial heating and engine fuels.
ISO 22991:2004 – Gas cylinders –Transportable refillable welded steel cylinders for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) – Design and construction
NIS ISO 4706:2008 – Gas cylinders – Refillable welded steel cylinders – Test pressure 60 bar and below Standard for LPG Pressure Vessel NIS 456:2003 The standard was developed considering the proliferation of pressure Vessels both stationary and mobile, either imported or locally fabricated.
ASME CODE Section VIII, Div 1: 2010 (Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels)
General handling and control of LPG Cylinders, NCP 058:2017
General handling and control of LPG Vessels for the Storage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), NCP 059:2017
Code of Practice for the Transport and Storage of LPG cylinders, NCP 017: 2006
Code of Practice For Gas Cylinder Test Stations, NCP 8:2013
Guidelines for the establishment of LPG cylinders refurbishing station
A lot of standards have been elaborated for lubricants. There is standard on bio-diesel and the standard for the PMS is being developed. SON library can be visited for a comprehensive list of standard elaborated.
LPG VESSELS (TANKS)
ASME CODE Section VIII, Div 1: 2010 (Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels) Covers: Design, Construction, Inspection, Testing, Certification, Revalidation.
AGE OF VESSEL VALIDITY PERIOD
New – 5 years
11 to 30 years – 3 years
Above 30 years – 2 years
REVALIDATION AFTER EXPIRATION OF VALIDITY PERIOD
LPG Cylinder is classified as A Life Endangering product
All importers of LPG cylinders must have approval from SON to ensure that the cylinders conform with NIS 69: 2013. All cylinders must be re-qualified every 5 years. Expiry dates of cylinders shall be engraved or embossed on all cylinders (15 years life span).
No used cylinder should be imported. LPG equipment must be identified with importer’s name/logo.
All LPG equipment must come with SON Registration number for traceability
All cylinders must have a statement of requalification on them
Approved cylinders must come with approved valves (NIS 220)
Requalification of Cylinders
LIFE SPAN OF CYLINDERS – 15 Years
RE-QUALIFICATION – Every 5 Years
ROUTINE INSPECTION – Done at every point of filling
PERIODIC INSPECTION – Done every 5 years at the point of filling and refilling at the plants or certified test centres
PERIODIC INSPECTION – Can lead to: (a) requalification (b) refurbishing (c) scrapping
REFURBISHING – Only once in a life cycle of cylinder
Any cylinder older than 15 years from date of manufacture is considered as having expired
Any cylinder with major damage through dent, rust, fire etc is considered as sub-standard and should be scrapped.
LPG will continue to play an increasing important role in future with rising income as well as growing awareness about the convenience and health benefits.
It is important that we take advantage of the economic and market potentials of the LPG reserve and reposition the country to reap the enormous benefits associated with it.
However, compliance to Standards and specifications is key in ensuring global relevance and sustainability. The future of role of LPG begins now.